The present work, had the purpose to evaluate the falciforme anemia for intermediary of a literature revision, being searched to analyze the effectiveness of the precocious laboratorial diagnosis of the related disease. After extensive bibliographical analysis, had been used 38 excellent articles that had served of base for this study. One verified that diverse techniques used for a correct diagnosis of the falciformes illnesses exist, them divergem in the method and in the application, however, all are unanimous in affirming that the precocious laboratorial diagnosis of the falciforme anemia, are indispensable for the reduction of the indices of mortality and morbidade, providing an improvement in the quality of life of the affected individuals. Word-key: Falciforme disgnostic Anemia/? 1. INTRODUCTION The falciforme anemia is an illness of genetic character for the first time, described for HERRICK (1910), frequent, but not exclusive, in individuals of African origin, origin to the hemoglobina S is originated by a mutation in chromosome 11, that N-terminal in the chain results in the substitution of an acid glutmico for the valina in position 6 of the extremity of the globina, giving.
The eritrcitos whose predominant content is the hemoglobina S assume, in hipxia conditions, form fellow creature to the one of a scythe, therefore the falciforme name, being decurrent of the polymerization of the hemoglobina S. The red globules in scythe form do not circulate adequately in the microcirculation, resulting in such a way in blockage of the hair sanguine flow as in its proper precocious destruction. This fisiopatolgico mechanism causes serious clinical manifestations, with bigger frequency after the 3 months of age. During the 6 first months of life, these individuals generally assintomticos must to the high levels of hemoglobina F. GMEZ et al. (2010) they define that the gene of the hemoglobina S is a gene of high frequency in all America, and in Brazil is more frequent in the regions Southeastern and northeast.